21. Relation (O)

21.1. DC Field


21.2. Usage


21.3. DCMI Definition

The reference to a related resource.

21.4. Usage Instruction

For OpenAIRE-specific use, see sections on Project Identifier (MA), Alternative Identifier (R), Publication Reference (R), and Dataset Reference (R).

Recommended best practice is to reference the resource by means of a string or number conforming to a formal identification system. The DC element relation can be used to indicate different kinds of relations between several metadata records. If relations between metadata records are made visible by using metadata the following holds for the distinction between versions (author version and publisher version, preprint, postprint, etc.):

  • A metadata record is self-contained
  • Different manifestations of one and the same resource (an instance of scientific output that can be described with exactly the same bibliographic metadata, except for the DC element format) are linked to one single metadata record using dc:relation.

Changes in the metadata other than the DC element format leads to creating a new metadata record of this new instance of scientific output which meets all requirements formulated in this document and has a value in the DC element relation.

21.5. Do Not Confuse With

21.6. Since

DRIVER Guidelines v2

21.7. Example

Generic use:


The value of dc:relation is the identifier of the other document.

Linking two documents:

<!-- Document A -->
<dc:identifier> http://hdl.handle.net/10</dc:identifier>
<!-- Document B -->
<dc:identifier> http://hdl.handle.net/20</dc:identifier>